I determined I'm running Ubuntu 18.04.
I took the time to download Docker for Ubuntu and followed the instructions here: https://docs.docker.com/engine/install/ubuntu/
ROS Download / Setup
Based on the fact that I'm running Ubuntu 18.04, I will be using the Melodic version of ROS
Managed to get it working under python 2.7. I really want to make sure however that I'm going to be compatible in the future, so I want to get this working under python 3.x but that will come later.